Estimation of Technical Change: Direct Semi/nonparametric Approaches
with S. C. Kumbhakar and S. Zhao, Economics Letters, 199, Article 109734
This paper introduces some novel approaches to formulate and estimate technical change nonparametrically in a variety of cases without estimating the underlying production technology usually specified by a production, cost, revenue or transformation function. The binding theme in all these formulations of technical change is the use of first-order conditions of profit maximization and cost minimization. The technical change measures are observation-specific due to their nonparametric nature.
Does Subsidy Increase Firm Productivity? Evidence from Chinese Manufacturing Enterprises
with M. Jin and S. C. Kumbhakar, under review, Job Market Paper
This paper examines the effect of governmental subsidy on firm-level productivity. To analyze this nexus, we use a novel formulation that enables us to examine two distinct channels through which subsidy can affect output (productivity), holding input levels unchanged. Consequently, the contribution of subsidy to productivity (change) is decomposed into a neutral component and a non-neutral component. In decomposing productivity using these channels we treat subsidy as endogenous, and make necessary modifications in the estimation of the semiparametric production function in which the coefficients are functions of endogenous subsidy. We also use some exogenous factors to model the endogeneity of subsidy. In the empirical application, we use a panel data on the Chinese machinery industry spanning from 1998 to 2007. Firm age, size, location and ownership are utilized as factors affecting subsidy assignment. We find that subsidies increase neutral productivity and decrease non-neutral productivity.
Do Subsidies Matter in Productivity and Profitability Changes? A View through the Prism of Parametric and Nonparametric Modelling
with S. C. Kumbhakar and G. Lien, under review
In this paper, we use both parametric and nonparametric approaches to estimate total factor productivity (TFP) and profitability changes, and decompose these changes into their various components. An important concern in the decomposition exercise is to examine the contribution of subsidies. In both the parametric and nonparametric approaches, we consider estimation methods treating the subsidy as either exogenous or endogenous. Furthermore, we evaluate each of these models with and without inefficiency. Thus, we have parametric (nonparametric) models with the endogenous (exogenous) treatment of subsidies with (and without) inefficiency, eight different models in total. We employ a panel of Norwegian farms producing multiple outputs to highlight our methods, and a production technology represented by an input distance function to handle the multiple outputs. Our objective in using eight different models is to examine the robustness of subsidies and the other components of TFP change. These components relate to technical change, scale economies, subsidies, input and output misallocations, and inefficiency. In addition to the TFP change components, profitability change involves two extra components, i.e., the changes in input and output prices.
Trade and Productivity in the Presence of Subsidy: A Firm Level Analysis
This paper investigates the relationship between trade status and productivity with consideration of governmental subsidies at the firm level. The previous literature has documented that international trade does affect a firm's productivity in different ways. Firms which import tend to have a higher productivity than those who only use inputs produced domestically. Export behavior also benefits firms in terms of producing more efficiently. Two-way traders who both import and export typically enjoy a trading premium when generating a higher level of output. In addition to reexamining the trade-production linkage, we involve governmental subsidies into the analysis because subsidies are important in a firm's production process. Using a combined data set of computer and peripheral industry from China, we find that on average trading is beneficial to the production outcome of manufacturing firms. However, the effect of subsidies within this association depends on the subsidized amount and an extremely high subsidy might harm a firm's trade-production premium.
Do Institutions Matter for Economic Growth?
with S. C. Kumbhakar
Using a unique data set assembled from several sources, we examine the effects of democracy, corruption, and economic freedom on economic growth for over one hundred countries. To allow for heterogeneous effects, we use a quantile regression approach. Our results support some findings in the literature, but also provide some new conclusions. In many cases, quantile regression estimates are quite different from those from GMM. We find that the positive effect of democracy is lower for the countries with a higher growth rate of GDP per capita, which may sound counter-intuitive to conventional wisdom. Likewise, we find that corruption "sands the wheels" ("greases the wheels") for the lowest (highest) GDP per capita growth countries. Economic freedom shows a positive effect on GDP per capita growth rate. Our results suggest that since democratic status is hard to change in the short run, certain current corruption control measures as well as economic freedom adjustment policies may be reconsidered, especially among the fastest and slowest growing countries.
Heterogeneous Effects of Income on Democracy under Different Colonizers - Comment on Income and Democracy: Comment
with S. C. Kumbhakar
This paper undertakes both a narrow and wide replication of the heterogeneity in effects of income on democracy considered by Cervallati et al. (2014). By further dividing the sample, we show that within colonies, the effects of income on democracy vary: statistically negative for the former French, British, German, and Danish colonies, but statistically insignificant for the other colonies. Contrary to their conclusion, there is no statistical evidence that the heterogeneous effects are related to colonial history and early institutions. Our findings are robust to the use of estimation techniques.
Work in Progress
Export and Productivity: A Semiparametric Smooth Coefficient Approach
with S. C. Kumbhakar
Technical and Productivity Changes
with S. C. Kumbhakar